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Sunday, October 17, 2010

Blackout Restoration Procedure (Substation Operation and Maintenance)

Since a super typhoon is expected to make a landfall here in the Philippines tomorrow, utmost preparation is being implemented by the Substation and Transmission Line personnel. Previous typhoons have caused blackouts so a possibility for another blackout is likely to happen.
According to Wikipedia files, A blackout refers to the total loss of power to an area and is the most severe form of power outage that can occur. In the Philippines, blackout also refers to the cessation of power supply to a grid. If the power plants that supply to Luzon Grid fail simultaneously, then there will be a total loss of power to Luzon island, which is the largest island of the country. The procedure is an overview of blacout restoration. It has been summarized to make it short and simple.


There are four important points to remember at the onset of a blackout::

1. Always wait for official pronouncement of a system blackout from Area Control Center Dispatcher. The Area Control Center provides a Switching Checklist for all substations within their responsibility, and the checklist indicates the different options where power can be outsourced.

2. Once the announcement has been received, effect immediately the switching operations of circuit breakers according to the checklist and what option the dispatcher has stated to follow.

3. Report at once to the dispatcher the breakers that have been operated including breakers which malfunctioned, if there are any. In case there are malfunctioning of breakers, then remedies must be done so that the affected breakers will be operational.

4. Once the switching is completed, advise the dispatcher and wait for further instruction.

Note:

• All Breaker operations must be operated remotely via SCADA, unless instructed otherwise

• Disable Underfrequency Relay if instructed by the dispatcher

• Do not flood communication lines; wait for the call of Area Control Center Dispatcher and follow the instructions they will provide.

•Shunt capacitor banks should be removed from service to prevent high voltage until sufficient loads have been energized. Shunt reactors should be placed in service when initially restoring the sub-grid to help reduce system high voltage

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